一、 缩略词

英语当中缩略词使用的频率很高,如IMP: important, ASAP: as soon as possible。很显然如果能熟练掌握缩略词,会对考试大有裨益。


F拿掉所有元音 MKT: market MGR: manager MSG: message STD: standard

RCV: receive

F保留前几个字母INFO : information INS : insurance EXCH exchange I owe you IOU

In stead of I/O

F保留开头和结尾个发音字母 WK: week RM: room

PL: people

F根据发音 R :are THO: though THRU: through 缩略词 原词APT :Apartment ACC: Accountant ACDG :According ACPT: Accept AD :Advertisement ADS :Address ADV: Advice AMAP :As much/many as possible AMT: Amount APV :Approve ASAP :As soon as possible BAL :Balance BLDG :Building CERT Certificate CFM :Conform CNCL :Cancel CNF: Conference CMI :Commission CMP :Complete CMPE :Compete/competitive CMU :Communication CONC :Concern/concerning/concerned COND :Condition CO. :Company DEPT: Department DISC :Departure EXCH: Exchange EXPLN: Explain EXT: Extent FLT :Final FRT: Freight FYR :For your reference GD :Good GUAR :Guarantee H.O. Home office INFO :Information IMPS :Impossible IMP(T): Important INCD :Include INDIV :Individual INS: Insurance INTST :Interested I/O :In stead of IOU :I owe you IVO: In view of MANUF :Manufacture MDL :Model MEMO :Memorandum MGR :Manger MIN :Minimum MKT :Market MSG :Message NCRY :Necessary NLT :No later than OBS :Observe OBT :Obtain ORD :Ordinary PAT :Patent PC :Piece PKG :Packing PL :People PLS :Please POSN: Position POSS(BL): Possible PROD: Product QLTY: Quality QUTY: Quantity RCV: Receive REF :Reference REGL :Regular REP :Representative RESN: Reservation RPT :Repeat RESPON :Responsible SEC: Section SITN :Situation STD :Standard TEL :Telephone TEMP :Temporary TGM :Telegraph THO :Though TKS :Thanks TRD :Trade TRF: Traffic TTL :Total U :You UR :Your WK :Week WL :Will WT :Weight XL: Extra large

二、 字母、图像

Z: 表示"人"people/person,因为"Z"看上去像个人头,它通常被写在一个词或符号的右上角。例如:日本人:JZ。 C: 表示政府,统治:government,govern 希腊字母C读/ga:ma/,近似government, 所以就用C来表示govern, government。governmental official 可以表示为 CZ P: 表示政治:politics, political希腊字母P读/pai/,近似politics, political。那么politician就可以表示为 PZ E: 表示总数:total, totally, entire, entirely, on the whole, all in all, to sum up, ect. E 数学符号表示总值。 G: 表示效率:efficient, effective。G为效率符号。 Q: 表示"通货膨胀":inflation因为这个符号酷似一个上升的气球。 A: 表示农业: agriculture. agriculture经常用到,所以用首字母代替。 B:表示商业:business。 C×表示冲突,矛盾:conflict, confrontation "C×"中的"×"表示反对,字母"C"将反对的概念缩小为conflict 和 confrontation。 W:表示工作,职业: work, employ 等。它是work的第一个字母。所以WZ就可以用来表示worker, 而W(Z在字母上方表示employer, 在字母下方表示employee)。 i:表示工业: industry, industrial 字母i 像只烟囱,所以用来可以用来表示工业。 U:U看酷似一个酒杯,在笔记中表示合同、协议(treaty, agreement)一般只有在谈判成功、协议成交后才会表示"举杯祝贺"。如果在U内填入2×.×.×.×,就可以表示为bilateral(双边的), 填入3表示为trilateral(三边的)。填入在U中填入1表示: Unilateralism(单边主义),填入m (multiple) 表示多边主义。如果在U上加一个"/"×.×.×.×表示谈判破裂。

O:表示"国家"、"民族"、"领土"等:country, state, nation, etc.gO表示进口,Og表示出口

这个符号酷似一把椅子,可以表示主持、主办:chair, host, preside over。那么在此符号上加Z表示主席,主持人:chairman, host, etc.

T:表示"领导人":leader, head那么head of government, head of company 便可以表示为 CT ⊙:圆圈表示一个圆桌,中间一点表示一盆花,这个符号就可以表示会议、开会等:meeting,conference, negotiation,seminar,discussion,symposium k:这个符号看上像条鱼,所以表示"捕鱼业"等合fishery 有关的词汇。 O:圆圈代表地球,横线表示赤道,所以这个符号就可以表示国际的、世界的、全球的等: international, worldwide, global, universal, etc. J:表示开心:pleasant, joyful,happy,excited, etc. L:表示不满、生气unsatisfied, discomfort, angry, sad, etc. EO:表示听到、总所周之:as we all know, as is known to all, as you have already heard of, etc. O:表示漠不关心、无动于衷:indifferent, apathetic, unconcern, don't care much, etc

三、 数学符号+ 表示"多"

many, lots of, a great deal of, a good many of, etc. ++(+2) 表示"多"的比较级:more +3 表示"多"的最高级:most – 表示"少": little, few, lack ,in short of/ be in shortage of etc. × 表示"错误"、"失误"和"坏"的概念:wrong/incorrect,something bad,notorious,negative, etc. > 表示"多于"概念:bigger/larger/greater/more than/better than, etc. 表示"高" 概念:superior to,surpass, etc. < 表示"少于"概念:less/smaller,etc. 表示"低"概念:inferior to,etc. = 表示"同等"概念:means,that is to say, in other words,the same as,be equal to, etc. 表示"对手"概念:a match, rival, competitor, counterpart, etc. ( ) 表示"在……之间":among, within, etc. ≠ 表示"不同"概念:be different from, etc. 表示"无敌"概念:matchless, peerless, etc. ~ 表示"大约"概念:about/around,or so, approximately, etc. / 表示"否定","消除"等概念:cross out, eliminate, etc.

四、 标点等

表示各种各样"说"的动词:say, speak, talk, marks, announce, declare, etc. ? 表示"问题":question,issue,例如:台湾问题:tw? . (dot) 这个"."点的位置不同表示的概念也不一样".d"表示yesterday, ".y"表示last year, ".2m"表示two month ago。"y"表示this year, "y2." two year later"next week", 可以表示为"wk." ∧ 表示转折 √ 表示"好的"状态,right/good,famous/well-known,etc. 表示"同意"状态,stand up for,support, agree with sb, certain/ affirmative, etc. ☆ 表示"重要的"状态:important,exemplary(模范的) best,outstanding,brilliant,etc. n 表示"交流"状态:exchange,mutual, etc. & 表示"和","与":and,together with,along with, accompany,along with,further more,etc. ∥ 表示"结束":end,stop,halt,bring sth to a standstill/stop, etc.

五、 较长单词的处理办法

-ism 简写为 m 例如:socialism Sm -tion 简 简写为 n 例如:standardization (标准化) stdn -cian 简 简写为 o 例如:technician techo

-ing 简写为 g 例如:marketing (市场营销) MKTg


Welcome to Everglades National Park.


The Everglades is a watery plain covered with saw grass that's home to numerous species of plants and wildlife.


At one and a half million acres, it's too big to see it all today, but this tour will offer you a good sampling.


Our tour bus will stop first at Taylor Slough.

我们的旅游巴士将首先停在Taylor Slough

This is a good place to start because it's home to many of the plants and animals typically associated with the Everglades.


You'll see many exotic birds, and, of course, our world famous alligators.


Don't worry, there's a boardwalk that goes across the marsh, so you can look down at the animals in the water from a safe distance.


The boardwalk is high enough to give you a great view of the saw grass prairie.


From there we'll head to some other marshy and even jungle like areas that feature wonderful tropical plant life.


For those of you who'd like a closer view of the saw grass prairie, you might consider renting a canoe sometime during your visit here.


However, don't do this unless you have a very good sense of direction and can negotiate your way through tall grass.


We'd hate to have to come looking for you.


You have the good fortune of being here in the winter—the best time of year to visit.


During the spring and summer, the mosquitoes will just about to eat you alive!


Right now they're not so bothersome, but you'll still want to use an insect repellent.



Thank you. It's great to see so many of you interested in this series on "Survival in Outer Space."


Please excuse the cameras, we're being videotaped for the local TV stations.


Tonight I'm going to talk about the most basic aspect of survival—the space suit.


When most of you imagine an astronaut, that's probably the first thing that comes to mind, right?


Well, without space suits, it would not be possible for us to survive in space.


For example, outer space is a vacuum—there's no gravity or air pressure; without protection, a body would explode.


What's more, we'd cook in the sun or freeze in the shade with temperatures ranging from a toasty 300 degrees above to a cool 300 degrees below zero Fahrenheit.


The space suit that NASA has developed is truly a marvel.


This photo enlargement here is a life-size image of an actual space suit worn by astronauts on the last space shuttle mission.


This part is the torso.


It’s made of seven extremely durable layers.


This thick insulation protects against temperature extremes and radiation.


Next is what they call a "bladder" of oxygen that's an inflatable sac, filled with oxygen, to simulate atmospheric pressure.


This bladder presses against the body with the same force as the Earth's atmosphere at sea level.


The innermost layers provide liquid cooling and ventilation.


Despite all the layers, the suit is flexible, allowing free movement so we can work.


Another really sophisticated part of the space suit is the helmet.


I brought one along to show you. Can I have a volunteer come and demonstrate?



Good evening. My name is Pam Jones, and on behalf of the Modern Dance club, I'd like to welcome you to tonight's program.

晚上好,我的名字叫Pam Jones,代表现代舞俱乐部,我想欢迎大家来到今晚的节目。

The club is pleased to present the TV version of The Catherine Wheel, Twyla Tharp's rock ballet.

本俱乐部很荣幸地介绍Catherine Wheel(凯萨琳车轮)的电视版,Twyla Tharp的摇滚芭蕾舞。

This video version of the ballet has been even more successful with audiences than the original theater production.


It includes some animation, slow motion, and stop-action freezes that really help the audience understand the dance.


The title of the piece refers to Saint Catherine, who died on a wheel in 307 A.D.

这个作品的名字指的是Saint Catherine(圣凯瑟琳),她于公元307年死于一个轮子上

Nowadays, a Catherine wheel is also a kind of firework.

现如今,Catherine Wheel也是一种烟火(转轮烟火)

It looks something like a pinwheel.


Anyway, the dance is certainly full of fireworks!


You'll see how Twyla Tharp explores one family's attempt to confront the violence in modern life.

你将会看到Twyla Tharp是如何探究一个家庭在现代生活中面对暴力的尝试

The central symbol of the work is a pineapple, but exactly what it represents has always created a lot of controversy.


As you watch, see if you can figure it out.


The music for this piece is full of the rhythmic energy of rock music.


It was composed by David Byrne.

由David Byrne作曲,

Of the rock band Talking Heads?

(David Byrne)貌似是来自摇滚乐队Talking Heads?

And the lead dancer in this version was Sara Rudner, who is perfectly suited to Tharp's adventurous choreography.

这个版本的领舞是Sara Rudner,她完全适合Tharp的大胆的编舞

Following the video, dance teacher Mary Parker will lead a discussion about the symbolism Ms. Tharp used.

伴随着视频,舞蹈老师Mary Parker将会引导一个关于Ms. Tharp所用的象征主义的讨论。

We hope you can stay for that.


So, enjoy tonight's video and thank you for your support.



© 版权声明